Breakeven Analysis

It is very easy and basic concept of business world. When I started with1st semester of my business education without having any prior knowledge or background of business studies, it took me time to digest this and its graphs. But now it seems just like a piece of cake thing and very basic.

It simply says the point of sales when there is no profit no loss situation. It’s a simple relationship between costs, sales and profit. When sales are covering the costs incurred. Neither you are earning any profit nor bearing any loss but the revenue is covering all the costs.
Now let’s have a look at its formula:

To calculate breakeven point (where sales are covering costs), you need to know the unit price of the product being sold, lets denote it with P, variable cost per that is VC and total fixed cost lets say it TFC. So we can say:

                                    BE = TFC/P-VC

For more understanding lets figure this formula out using some hypothetical numbers, suppose we are producing pens. Per unit cost is $ 7 and variable cost per unit is $4. Now by subtracting P-VC ($7-$4) we get $3 in this case. Say annual TFC is $300 then breakeven point can be computed as $300/$7-$4= 100 units. $100X$7=$700 that is revenue. And $400+$300=$700 that is total cost. So 100 units of pen will be enough to cover all costs.

So this way you can easily calculate how much volume you should produce, to what amount it should be increased or decreased.

What is GMAT

GMAT stands for Graduate Management Admission Test it is administrated under Graduate Management Admission Council (GMAC). GMAT is required to most of the international MBA programs including America, Canada and European countries. But now in Pakistan also, GMAT is becoming one of the basic requirements of admission in top MBA programs in institutes like LUMS, IBA, and LSE etc. Although these institutes conduct their own admission tests but those tests are also based on GMAT format (which I’ll describe later) but they do accept GMAT score as well. (GMAT is not a pass/fail test; it gives the result in form of score)

GMAT is now named as GMAT CAT, CAT stands for Computer Adaptive Test. This change of name occurs simply because GMAT is now conducted with the help of computers :).

Now let’s come to the format of GMAT which is consists of three parts
  1. Analytical Writing Assessment – two 30 minutes essay writing, one analysis of an argument and one analysis of an issue
  2. Quantitative Ability – 75 minutes session of multiple questions of problem solving and dada sufficiency
  3. Verbal Ability – 75 minute session of multiple questions of Critical reasoning, Sentence Correction and Reading Comprehension

GMAT announces result of these three sections separately but score of quantitative and verbal abilities are also announced together. Maximum score of GMAT is 800 and most institutes in Pakistan accept above 550 or 600 but that is not a hard and fast rule

Some Important Points about GMAT CAT:
  • Maximum Time 3 hours and 45 minutes
  • Maximum score is 800
  • International test fee is $250
  • Additional fee for Test score reporting $28
  • National Passport is essential for GMAT.

Most students in Pakistan (including me) rely on different academies for GMAT preparation but I learned that attending academies is just a waste of time and money as well. So if you are looking forward to give GMAT or any other local GMAT format test then my advice is that, buy a GMAT book and start practicing it right now!

How to Attempt Paper Effectively

Have you ever found yourself in a position when you thought that you did a great job in exam but on result day your marks wasn’t matched with your expectations. Well that happened basically when you don’t attempt you paper effectively. So I decided to put together some guidelines to be followed when attempting a paper.

I am not going to give you any supersonic thing that can help you get 90% marks when your preparation is for 70% but one thing I guarantee that if you follow these points you will get the marks according to your expectations and preparations. These guidelines will specially help students studying in annual system but some institutes do have subjective type of questions in semester system even so it’s also better for those who are studying under semester system to have some fair bit of knowledge about how to attempt paper effectively. So here we go…

Study Well:    Yes to attempt a paper you should study the books first, point to be noted is that I am not saying to attempt a paper effectively I am saying to attempt you need to study your books well. While studying always give more time to major concepts but never left minor topics totally, at least read them once. This practice will help you if got something called “out of course” or “upset paper”.

Start with Your Strong Point:                      Always start with a question about which you are damn sure that you can give 100% what is demanded by paper setter. Because its all about making positive perception of you in the mind of paper checker. So if you hit him hard with your strong concept then he’ll of perception that he checking a paper of some genius. So never show your weak point at start.

Complete All Answers:          Make sure that you complete all your answers whether you know them or not. Well if you are thinking that how is it possible to complete something which you don’t know, well in that case pretend as you know and conclude your answer. Basically the point is that you don’t need to left an answer thinking that “I’ll come back to it afterwards” believe me most of the times that afterwards never comes.

Attempt All Questions Required:     Never left a single question because it’s just like surrendering your right for some certain marks. So make sure that you attempt all questions required for 100% marks, remember I told you to read all topics at least once that will help you here.

Keep Your Paper Clean:        As all of you know better that it’s better to have your answer sheet neat and clean and avoid any unnecessary cuttings or overwriting. Paper checker love those papers that are neat and make it easy for checker to check paper.

So these were the things which I thought are important to attempt paper effectively.

How You Can Prepare Yourself for Interview

Many of you are about to finish your studies and start looking for jobs, and if you are really about to do this then my advice is not to wait for your studies to be completed and start dropping your C.Vs now. Yes now because there are very little chances say 10% out of 100 applications you drop to companies that you get a interview call. And if you are lucky enough to have an interview call I am sure this piece of information will help you a lot and increase your chances to be successful atleast in the interview. Being an HR major I have developed some points on how you can prepare yourself for interview, here they are:

Step 1, Find Out The Type of Interview:       Here is the very first step to prepare yourself for an interview. Find for what type of interview you are going, remember there are three types of interviews (1) Screening Interview (2) Decision Interview (3) Data Gathering Interview. Your level of preparation depends alot on the fact that what type of interview you are going to. Because the screening and data gathering interviews are just not enough important to do "ALOT" for them, main thing is decision interview where you make into the job.

Step 2, Prepare To Be Asked:        This is the key point, when you are going for an interview you should know about the organization you are going in, you should have fair amount of information about the JOB you are applying for. Search and look what type of questions an interviewer could ask and rehearsal there answers. If you could manage to know a little bit about the interviewer before the interview that would be a big plus.

Step 3, Prepare To Ask:      Always remember that interviewers like the candidates who come with preparation and can convey their thoughts well. So never get hesitated or feel shy of asking something from interviewer but make sure you don't ask something silly. Ask what you really wanna ask and that make the sense in that environment.

Step 4, Dress Yourself :      Hey get a suit and start wearing it so make your body feel comfortable in it, I know students don't like formal dresses in their student life but believe me when you are at interview a smart suit makes the difference. Navy blue is recommended color for your suit but you can also pick black or dark brown. Spend some money on your dressing and it will give you a big "competitive edge".

Step 5, Get Rid of Anxiety:     Research proved that many of candidates score low on interviews because of their anxiety. Get Rid of it Man, researchers found that anxiety can be significantly reduced if you have a realistic understanding of the context of the interview and go into interview with an open mind. So if you are fairly prepared for interviewer's question then you would feel confident.

Step 6, Get A Commitment:     This is not the part of preparation but it is important that when you are finish with the interview get something called commitment. Like "When I'll be informed?" or "When are you planning to finalize you hiring decision?". This practice will help you in managing you time schedule for other interviews.

I tried my little best to give you some quick tips about interviewing, let me know if you need something more on this thing.

Corporate Portfolio Analysis

When companies are having more then one business unit, they need to know the performance of their each business unit. To manage and maintain each business unit, managers make portfolio of businesses using corporate portfolio matrix.

The first and most commonly used and known portfolio matrix is BCG matrix- developed by Boston consulting. In this idea businesses could be evaluated using 2x2 matrix where we can identify that which business is offering high opportunities and which one is going in loss. This way you can best analyze your businesses and make decision in which business to invest, where to cut the costs, which needs more attention etc.

In the diagram above, the horizontal axis represents market share, which has two values either low or high; and the vertical axis indicates anticipated market growth, which also has two values either high or low.

There are four categories in which businesses are placed in order to evaluate each of them:

Cash Cows: This category business is having high market share but there growth rate is quite low. So due to high market share these are highly profit generating for you organization but there future prospects are no certain and are limited.
Managers should milk cash cows as much as they can and stop making new investments in these businesses.

Stars: these businesses have both high growth and high market share. So along with generating high amounts of profits for your organization, these also hold a dominant share of market. There growth rate is very fast and have future certainty.
Managers should invest heavily in stars to get more benefit out of these businesses. This way growth will keep on increasing and high market share will be maintained giving huge amounts of cash to organization. Eventually stars will turn into cash cows, when they will reach the stage of maturity and growth will slow down.

Question marks: these businesses have high growth but there market share is not strong. These are attractive opportunities but due to small market share they are not profit generating.
Managers should make new investments in question marks as they have growth potential. So they should invest to get the market share and enjoy high profits by holding strong market share as well. And when they will achieve the market share along with high growth, these will turn into stars and ultimately cash cows. Some of these may be sold out if managers are not willing or having heavy investments.

Dogs:Business in this category are both with low growth and low market share. These neither produce nor consume much of organizational resources.
Since these businesses are giving nothing to organization, so these should be either sold off or liquidated.

Personal Selling Approaches

To market their product to customers, organizations use different approaches, depending on the nature of product or services, resources of the organization, expertise or others. Initially there were four approaches which were being practiced but later one more approach came into practice.

Stimulus response selling:

It is the simplest approach to selling. It uses structured questions and statements, which act as stimuli for the customer and sales person get the desired response in their favor. Words and statements of sales person furnish a stimulus if they are well planned and hit the nail on the head.
Planning or preparation of conversation is being done at the sales person end. He prepares structured questions whose answer is most likely to be in “YES” leading towards the end of the sale in “YES”.
This approach involves less contribution of the buyer, its one sided conversation in favor of sales person, who has the aim to sell at any cost. So it’s suitable in the situations when buyer is unprofessional and has less knowledge.
Example includes telemarketing, in which one script is being memorized and then repeated on every call till the sale call is closed.

Mental State Selling:

It is formula approach to selling. It is similar to stimulus response selling as it also uses structured question to lead the buyer to different mental states. These mental states are AIDA (Attention, Interest, Desire, Action). Sales person should be intelligent enough to keep track of buyer’s mental state while asking him questions.
It is bit technical and requires sound mental ability of the sales person. First he tells customer about his product/service to gain Attention, then tries to develop customers’ interest, after that a stage, conviction comes, when salesperson describes the functions and benefits of products/services. After that in the stage of desire he should overcome the hesitation of customer and make him positive about his product/service and at the end sought the sales call.

Need Satisfaction selling:

In this approach, first of all the problem is identified. What does customer need to solve his problem? Sales person first listen to customer and let him take the initial part of conversation to uncover the needs of buyer. When need is identified then sales person tells about his product/services and how can they benefit customers and tell the entire features. Then sale is closed either with positive response from the customer or negative.

Problem Solving Selling:

In this approach problem is already identified, sales person need to define it to the customer and then tell him all the alternatives available even of competitors to solve the problem. He also explains his own company’s product/service, after that he evaluate the alternatives carefully; doing comparisons of all and then sought the sales call.

Consultative Selling:

In this approach both buyer and seller works with collaboration. In this approach seller tries to help the buyer out in accomplishing his organizational objectives and strategies. It involves two way interactions. Seller sincerely tries to seek out the problem of buyer and use all his resources and expertise to provide him services. It may take several days for sales to be done.

Considerations Before Buying a Running Business

Before buying a running business you must consider number of things to make decision whether to acquire it or not. He/she should do critical analysis of everything from financial position of the business to its infrastructure. Obviously he will acquire that business if he will find it either profitable or with great opportunities. Following are the characteristics that should be kept in mind before acquiring a running business.

  • Goodwill:

The repute of business in the market and industry, its standings and goodwill it holds in customers’ or people’s mind. It is very important character to consider and useful in making decision. Because having goodwill is major component of success of business. So running business having goodwill is very good opportunity for you.

  • Infrastructure:

It is also one of the very important features to be considered. Infrastructure plays an important role in accomplishment of all tasks of business. Wisely build infrastructure help business activities to be performed.

  • Setup:

Getting already build setup is quite a benefit, but only if it is creatively and successfully builds and goes with the activities of business while smoothing those. It saves time of the prospective buyer. It’s like backbone of the business so it should be analyzed and viewed carefully and critically.

  • Revenue:

This is the most important concern of any buyer that what revenue does business generates and the amount of net profit. So all the financial books and statements should be carefully examined. If revenues are high and in future prospected to grow more; then its good opportunity for the person to acquire such profitable business where sales turnover is very good.

  • Worth:

The price you are paying to acquire business must be the one that that business worth. You can make quite a thought after viewing various features and its type that what the suitable price that this business is worth.

  • Stakeholders:

With acquisition of business all stakeholders are also inherited. Stakeholders are the most important part of the business. So this part should be examined keenly and carefully. Stakeholders may include the following:
Customers are the most important part of the business. You must get the knowledge that how much customers business own and what increase or decrease would be there in future. You obviously can not tell clearly about futures but you can just make a guess by observing the behavior of current customers.

Employees are most important assets of any company; so the competency level, loyalty and hard work of the employee should be analyzed. There attitudes and beliefs about the business they are working for should be determined carefully.

They may be individuals, companies or financial institutions. But relation with these is very important. If it is good then it would be helpful for the prospective buyer in future. If he needs to expand, add or innovate his business in anyway; he can get loans and financial assistance easily.

Suppliers of the business are in relation with it. With the acquisition of business, suppliers are also inherited and you can continue your business with suppliers on the same terms as earlier.

Credit ratings should be checked, and it should be watched out carefully that there are not complex liabilities on business, which are complex in nature and you are unable to write them off. Liabilities of the running business are also inherited like all other things, so they should be carefully taken into consideration.

  • Location:

Location of the business is also very critical to running any business. Location must be good that is suiting the business. Where there are more chances of the business to remain successful and grow.
  • Technology:

Technology plays an important role which includes all the techniques, equipments and methods used for running all the business activities and it should not be obsolete. Because in every night changing and challenging business environment you must go with what’s in and productive.

  • Industry:

The industry should be analyzed and considered that what opportunities it does have in future and its not dying but flourishing every day.

Job Analysis

Conducting a job analysis is the one of the most critical parts of an HR management system and therefore it has to be conducted with extreame care and in proper manner. A job analysis can be defined as:

         "A purposeful, systematic process for collecting information on the important work-related and worker-related aspects of a job"

In work-related aspects we study the core tasks and duties which comprises that specific job. Those can be maintaining the record files, assisting the higher staff for a clerical job. And in worker-related aspects of a job we analyzed the basic human behavours that are required to perform such job.

Some of the information gathered during a job analysis is as follows:

  1. Work activities - what a worker does; how, why and when these activites are actually conducted.
  2. Work environment - analyze the actual working condition for the job under consideration
  3. Tools and Equipment - identify the main tools and equipment that a job holder will be using during his job.
  4. KSAs required - personal knowledge, skill and abilities required in a person to perform such a job.
The process of recruitment and selection of a company mainly depends on the quality of job analysis because if the job analysis is not done well then the whole system could be collapsed. Job analysis information could be gathered from many sources like actual persons who are performing the job and their supervisors. Some subject matter experts (SME) can also be interviewed to know about the job under consideration.

Job Analysis is a very simple and easy concept but if you still have some confusion or you want to further contribute on this topic feel free to write.

Agency Theory

This theory actually caters with the problems arising among principle and agents. This theory looks at the conflicts arising among principles and agents. Principle and agent; these two factors make an agency in which one is acting on behalf of other or representing the other.

In a company principle agent relationship exists between Shareholders (Principles) and management (Agents). Shareholders are the owners of the company who invest their capital. They directly or indirectly hire management to run the affairs of the business. They expect them to carry out the business in favor of shareholders and generate maximum profits. So management have obligation to run all affairs of the company using their knowledge, skills and abilities and honestly. Managers are custodian of shareholders’ interest.

But sometimes there may be a situation when interests of shareholders and agents differ. And this variance in interest creates problems. This is called Agency Problem. Shareholders may suffer because of certain decisions of the management which are in favor of managers. Managers are majorly concerned about their monetary benefits, rank, position and rooting in the company so they may hide some material facts which are the consequence in guarding their own interests. For example, CEO may want to increase its managerial empire and personal stature and use funds to finance unrelated diversification.
This could reduce shareholders’ value.

Agency theory deals with these problems and tries to provide best possible way to eliminate it. But in efforts to eliminate these problems, certain cost of the principle is inflicted or expenses incurred in order to sustain an effective agency relationship; this is called as agency cost. Following are the costs of shareholder-management conflict:

• expenditures to monitor managerial activities, such as audit costs;

• expenditures to structure the organization in a way that will limit undesirable managerial behavior, such as appointing outside members to the board of directors or restructuring the company's business units and management hierarchy;

• Opportunity costs which are incurred when shareholder-imposed restrictions, such as requirements for shareholder votes on specific issues, limit the ability of managers to take actions that advance shareholder wealth.

Following are the ways to reduce the agency costs:

• Incentive schemes for managers to reward them financially for maximizing owners’ interest
– e.g. shares at reduced price, thus aligning financial interests of executives with those of share holders
• direct intervention by shareholders
• the threat of firing
• the threat of firing

Emerging Business Schools in Lahore

Business Studies are getting more and more popular in Pakistan and some students are preferring Business studies over medical even. An very clear prove of this change is higher merit of business schools both in public and private sector. Over the years LUMS maintained his number one position in business schools not only in Lahore and Punjab but now it has become Pakistan's Top Business School. Some years back LSE joined LUMS in higher ranks of business schools.

But now there are some new business schools which are about to show their magic in business studies as well. Some big names like brand names are now started their own business school and got great response from students and market as well, well so far. I'm gonna give some information about those four emerging business schools of Lahore in this post.

FAST Business School:         National University of Computer and Emerging Sceinces started its Business School five years ago with the basic aim of supporting its Computer Sceince department with some degrees like BBIT and MBIT. But as the studies started it changes its dimensions and now they are fully providing pure business studies and no doubt there standard is high.

In FAST students' life are so much busy in projects, quizes, assignments, presentations and exams. So they are grooming their students for strong market competition. Also their labs, library is very well equipped with helpful staff. Faculty is qualified and know the profession of teaching pretty well and doing a great job. Read more here.

Management Studies Department, GCU:         Government College University has established is Management Studies Department and by using the name of GCU they got attention of students and got great response in the form of applications which eventually gave them liberty to chose intelligent students out of those applicants after a strict entry test and interview.

MBA at GCU got special attention by students because of its offering of a 6 month semester in Malaysia after two years in Pakistan. As they have highly qualified faculty so they can teach students according to the changing requirements of todays market. And facilities are also very much supportive in students research work and other activites. Read more about GCU here.     

MBA At FCC University:          Forman Christian College is one of the very popular and desired among emerging colleges for MBA. The level and statndard at the beginning is impressive. its planning and methods of studies and up to the mark designing of course outlines and competent faculty complementing all this has made it noticable among students. students are also given full support, guidance and suggestions regarding their studies and career. Students are looking forward to this institute for their MBA in future.
They provide students with opportunity to complete one or two of their semesters in American University, as it has its affiliation with some renown American universities. At FCC students are equipped with international level of education and professionalism.

Institute of Business&Management, UET:        UET, premier institute for engineering, has now come up with its institute of business administration & amp. They have introduced themselves with full implementation of modern techniques and latest methods and facilities for studies. Courses, class activities, quizzes and exams, everything is designed to enhance the intellectual level and inculcate professionalism into their students to compete in diverse market. they are providing students with up-to-date knowledge and skills to built their career.
To read more click here.


This term Turnover is used for so many purposes where some can good and some have adverse impact on situations.
"Turnover can be defined as the percentage of units leaving or replacing the whole family".
Employee Turnover:          Employee turnover means number of employees leaving a company in a given time. Mostly companies see high employee turnover as a negative sign and try hard to retain employees with them because hiring new employees is a costly job. But sometime when companies delibrately fire employees to reduce financial burden.

Sales Turnover:          Sales turnover is the percentage of goods to sold with respect to production. The high this turnover the better for company as both the profit and market share increases with this.

Vicious Circle of Poverty

Poverty is a curse and the biggest hurdle in development of a country. In underdeveloped countries there prevails vicious circle of poverty. There can be various factors responsible for it, for example; underutilization, mis-utilization or un-utilization of resources, low capital formation, population growth, low rate of saving and investment etc etc.

Vicious circle is like as in the following picture:


It shows that when a country is poor, incomes of people are low, when incomes are low they hardly meet the need of bread and butter, in this situation they are unable to save so country has low rate of saving. When there is no saving what would be there to invest. Hence low rate of investment. When there would be no investment, there would be low capital formation and low productivity per worker and because of this workers have low income. So this circle goes on. And it a big hindrance in the development of least developed countries.
In Pakistan’s scenario, people have low incomes, so they can not save, and according to figures saving rate is 14% of our GDP which should be 25%. Now we can not say that this low rate of saving is all because of low incomes, we have consumption oriented economy so people are less willing to save. Middle income people are not left with enough to save and high class social group is more interested in lavish spending. Similarly with have very low level of capital formation and investment. People are not willing to invest, now its also not wholly because of vicious circle of poverty, its partly because of unstable political and social situation of our country, power crisis and terrorism, these factors are also contributing to low investment because of lack of trust. Since the investment is low so productivity is also low.

Stock Options - An HR Approach

Employers use Employee Stock Option Plans to compensate their employees. Employee stock option plan can be define as follows.

"Under Employee Stock Option Plan companies grant employees right to purchase company shares on some future date at a specific price".

As definition shows that this is only a right to purchase company stock on some future date and employees are not actually given anything physically. In this method of compensating employees employer give employees right to purchase company's shares at specific rate on future date which is mostly 5 years. It means that Employer grants right to employee to purchase 10,000 shares of business for say Rs.100 per share after 5 years, now suppose the price of one share is 150 after 5 years. Now employee can earn Rs.50 per share which will made him Rs.500,000.

Benefits for Employees:          There are so many benefits for employees. First of all they get handsome amount of cash after they exercise their right. They feel sense of ownership into the company and this eventually give them job security as well.

Benefits for Employer:          Employers get their employees motivated by giving them Stock Options and as this is a promise for future date so an employee has to stick with company for some years to exercise his right to purchase share which reduces the Turnover of company.

Five Concepts of Marketing

According to lay man, marketing is all about selling and advertising the product. But in today’s corporate world it is one of the most important elements to run a business or business like activity. It plays a crucial role in earning profits for companies.

Marketing is all about customer’s satisfaction. Companies create value for the customer (by providing required quality goods and services qualityto build long lasting and strong relationship to capture value from the customer in return. There are two goals of marketing; one is to attract new customers and build relationship with them and second is to keep and grow the existing customers by delivering superior value. How to deliver superior value?
It’s quite simple; you just need to cater with the needs of the customer. One thing is most important and is the core of the marketing, i.e. “to know your customer”.
You can do it in 2 ways, one is either you scratch out your customers need and delivers it or you can produce or innovate on a thing and then make it your customers need. If we take the example of Nestle Curd. They prepared a product which is already available in the market everywhere with much ease and at lower cost but still they made attractively packed curd and made it customers’ requirement. Marketing is a very broad term, it includes so many things but the purpose is one and that is to Gain and retain the customers, satisfy them and capture their loyalty in return.

Marketing Concepts:          To retain profitable customers, company needs to orient such strategies that would build long lasting relationship with customers. Following are 5 concepts, evolved with the passage of time to fulfill the needs of customers.

The Production Concept:         In production concept it is perceived that a customer favors such product which is readily available in the market at relatively lower cost. It is one of the oldest concepts.
So the producers who follow this concept, tries to increase their production capacity and productivity as well to lower the cost. For this purpose they need efficient production processes and effective distribution channel for the placement of product.
This concept is applicable in 2 situations, one; when demand is exceeding supply in the market, to outfit that demand excessive production is required to make the product available all over. Second; when products’ price is high because of too high cost, and improved productivity is required to cut the cost.

The Product Concept:          Product concept emphasizes on the view that customer favors the product that offer most quality, improvement, features and enhancements. For this purpose organization tries to put all its efforts in upgrading the product. This concept focuses on making continuous improvements.
This idea can work to some extent, but in current era of latest technology and innovative inventions, it may not work that much successfully.

The Selling Concept:          In selling concept, it is being perceived that customer will not buy a certain product unless it’s being promoted and advertised massively. Such organizations that have the strategies according to this particular concept need a large sales force and promotional activities to make everyone well-informed regarding its product or service.

The Marketing Concept:          It is the modern concept, in which the focus is customers’ satisfaction. Company first analyze the consumers’ need and then produce such good and service to satisfy that need. In this way it can build a strong relationship with customer which can earn monetary benefits for the company.
This is the concept which is popular nowadays. Because now customers are more concerned and well aware. They want their needs to be satisfied with rather compromise with available products.

The Societal Marketing Concept:          It is enlightened concept which emphasizes that company should make products which are not only satisfying the interests of customers and company’s but society’s long run interest are saved as well.
              For example, ozone free deodorants, they are environmental friendly and are produced keeping in view that how the environmental hazards can be minimized. Customer may not know the environmental benefit of the product but organization has done it for the well fare of the whole society.

EduReadings is Here !!!

I am pleased to announce that Education Inn of Pakistan is now starting a new segment "EduReadings". In  EduReadings I, with the help of some other subject experts, will discuss major terms and concepts which will purely help students in their studies. EduReadings is going to be a unique in its kind because it will give students to the point information about given topic and in addition to this EduReadings will not only simplify those concepts in simplest possible form but also makes sure that after reading about any topic student can really understand that concept and above all we will discuss all those concepts according to Pakistani prospective where it required.

I will do my best to generate some useful and helpful material on as many topics as possible but for now I'm starting with some management related and general topics. But if you want any specific topic to be covered just let me know and I will try my best to sum that up for you. And also if you want to contribute in this cause you can mail your writings to

Happy Reading!!

Terrorism Holidays

The two words up in the heading are too horrible to read, but unfortunately this condition is prevailing in our country. Now educational institutes are the target of terrorists. This thing has created a chaos among students of all ages. The terror of blasts has made students to sit home, unless the security measures are up-to-the mark in educational institutes. Students are the main asset of any country; terrorists are trying to paralyze our country. Parents are afraid of sending their kids to schools, colleges and universities. We do not know that how long this pathetic situation is going to prolong, but we can only pray.

The blasts at Islamic University are highly condemnable. After that sadistic incident, there has been disturbance all over the country. All institutes were closed till 26th October, 2009 and were asked to adopt security measures till then. All educational institutes have been asked to take standard security measures; which includes 8 feet high wall around the institute with wire hindrance up on it, no entry without students’ ID cards, properly equipped guards, metal detector gates etc; but mostly have been unable to follow the instructions given. The situation is too chaotic, some schools are open some are closed, which are open parents are afraid to send their kids; some opened but were closed again because security measure taken were too weak.

Yesterday some explosive material was found from the Commerce University of Karachi. Due to which again a wave of terror run across the country. Some schools were again closed due to this. We used to have summer holidays and winter holidays, but now terrorism holidays are introduced to us. We condemn all this terrorist activity. our Govt. should take measures to end this as soon as possible. May Allah bless us and our Country and get us rid of terrorism; AMEEN.


Top MBA In Pakistan

Lahore University of Management Sciences: The most Prestigious university of Pakistan, LUMS, is ranked at the top for its MBA. It has touched the reputation for its MBA, that every organization, either national or multinational hires the graduates of LUMS. In 1986 LUMS launched its Business School with a world-class MBA programme (recently the School has been renamed as the Suleman Dawood School of Business). To be a LUMS graduate is a remarkable achievement. LUMS produces professionals, who can compete in the market and have significance and intellectual of their own. LUMS’s MBA is recognized throughout the world. It has gain such repute through hard working, competent, dedicated and highly professional faculty. The level of studies, contents of courses, kinds of courses and the way all these things are integrated, is the key to such promising institute’s success. Students are assessed, brain stormed, and given such activities which enhance their skills and abilities. Culture at LUMS is more towards modernism, western and lavish. Usually students belonging to upper class are found at LUMS.

To be at LUMS for Masters in Business Administration, they require GMAT, and if you get yourself cleared in the test then interview and after that admission. Though to be at LUMS requires a lot of money, but students can also get financial assistance to carry on their studies.

Institute of Business Administration (IBA), Karachi: Institute of Business Administration, Karachi; a giant among the institutes for MBA. It’s a dream of almost every student with business background to get its Masters in Business Administration done from IBA Karachi. It is ranked after LUMS in HEC ranking. It was established in 1955 with initial technical support provided by the world famous Wharton School of Finance, University of Pennsylvania; later, the University of Southern California set up various facilities at the Institute and several prominent American professors were assigned to the IBA. It holds ultimate market worth for its degree. IBA has produced about 8000 graduates to-date as outstanding professionals holding Chief Executives and top management positions in leading listed companies, corporations and banks. To get admission at IBA Karachi for its MBA, you need to clear its test with required marks and then you are being called for an interview and if your interview works then you are at IBA (Karachi). MBA program consists of two years (4 semesters) at Institute of Business Administration, Karachi. Students are also facilitated with scholarships, stipend and financial assistance so no student remains deprived of quality education.

The professional attitude students of IBA (Karachi), shines them out. Their interpersonal skills and charismatic personality is developed through quality studies and challenging experiences of projects, case studies, tutorials, presentations, quizzes and participation in different business competitions at national and international level. They have rigorous faculty who perfectly complement the blend of courses at IBA and are well aware that how to inculcate the professionalism in students.

Lahore School of Economics: Lahore School of Economics, another name in the race, has also achieved enough fame, repute and market value. Masters in Business Administration at LSE is ranked at 3rd number but in Lahore, it comes after LUMS.

In LSE, MBA students are given challenging case studies and tutorials to equip them with proficient skills in their long hour classes.. Life at LSE is quite hectic when it comes to study. Students have to stay in the university for long hours till evening. And even after going home they have loads of work to be done either regarding quiz or projects or assignments. Students face quite tough studies. But besides all this, there is fun and enjoyment as well. Students get quite chilling, friendly, social and open environment. Lots of events, gigs, parties held at LSE. LSE is also famous for certain notorious events and stuff at it. Culture is quite liberal and out of limits.
Graduates at LSE are quite blunt, confident and bold. LSE hold very good market value. Students get jobs in national and multinational jobs and hired as trainees in top ranked banks and institutions, after completion of their Masters’ degree at LSE. For admission at Lahore School of Economics, you have to clear an entry test that is conducted by LSE it self.

Institute of Business Management, Karachi: For me the main features of IBM's MBA is that they offer MBA in so many disciplines from 1 year MBA to 3 year and from general MBA to specialized in Finance, Marketing and HRM etc. Another plus which IBM got over other institutes is their faculty, they have so many foreign PhDs with vast teaching experience and unique teaching style.

Although MBA from IBM didn't got nation wide recognition in the sense like top two institute LUMS and IBA got this much recognition that students from all over the Pakistan apply to get admission in them. But still IBM Finished at number four in Eduinn's ratings.

International Islamic University - IIU Islamabad

International Islamic University is the only one of its kind in Pakistan and provide a real Islamic meaning of education to both Pakistanis and outsiders. With promising management and pure dedication towards education and education in pure Islamic way. Its not that IIUI only provide Islamic education as its name suggests, its a complete package of Management sciences to engineering and from social sciences to islamic studies. The whole idea behind this institute is to provide young nation the latest education with some Islamic touch. Well it seems quit impresive, the whole idea, but the question here is that weather they really provide what they claim? My answer is yes. They are really providing a brilliant enovironment rather Islamic enovironment to students which is producing some great youngsters, altough IIUI's students are not yet getting welcome response from market but they got a great potential to capture the market in really near future.

IIUI is growing with great pace because of two major reasons; first which is its greatest strength is its students who are really hardworking and passionate about their studies and second is its management's dedication about this institute.

Teachers are cooperative to students who get frequent assignments to do and marked on a lenient scale so students are quit satisfied with their teachers. Most of the teachers Masters which for me is a weakness at the university's end because at this competitive market you got to have some real experienced fellows to make your students something like brilliant.

Some of the weaknesses are as I mentioned above about the qualification of teachers is mostly Masters. Generally administration is very non-cooperative with students which create little bit of dissatisfaction among them so they, the administration, need to be more cooperative with students. And also students don't have much liberty to complaint against management which quit unjust on the part of Management. Lets have some quick review of different aspects of IIUI.

HISTORY: Back at 1980 this institute established but construction of its new campus made it possible to expand and offer a whole new line of programs. Old campus was located around the Faisal Mosque which was not much spacious to make it a quality place to learn so the management decided to build a new and large campus.

BASIC INFORMATION: New campus of IIUI is situated in sector H-10 of Islamabad. In this purposely build campus they consturct seprate hostels for male and female students. Education in IIUI is also sperate for male and female students which somehow matching with all the Islamic concept behind this institute.

STUDENT TALK: Students are really satisfied with this institute's education standards and also with the teachers' attitudes. But a students of IIUI told me on the behalf of others that management and administration is not much cooperative with students and don't give proper attention towards their problems. Other then this complaint they seems like happy with this institute.

FACILITIES: Facilites at International Islamic University are above average because of these plus and negatives. Library, Computer and Science labs are above average with library having huge amount of books, journals and magzines reaching almost 1.5 million in numbers and computer labs are up-to-date and science labs are equiped well.

Full transport is provided to students of twin cities. Hostel facility is also there for both male and female students. Class rooms are air conditioned and well maintained. Cafeteria is not up to the mark as it is low on quality and variety. Overall all campus building is also clean and well maintained.

PROGRAMS OFFERED: IIUI is offering different programs in following faculties.

  • Arabic Language and Islamic Civilization
  • Engineering and Technology
  • Basic and Applied Sciences
  • Islamic Studies
  • Languages, Literature and Humanities
  • Shar'iah and Law
  • Social Sciences
  • Management Sciences

WEBSITE: Here is the weblink of Islamic university click here to have more knowledge about IIUI.